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Whether you're self employed, running a business or organising an event, you need to consider public liability (PL) insurance. It covers you if a member of the public claims you've cause injury or property damage and is one of the most common types of business liability insurance. Between legal fees and settlement payments, compensation claims can cost tens of thousands of pounds or much more—potentially causing financial ruin if you're not insured. Here's what you need to know about public liability insurance.
Below we explain the different risks faced by businesses, and how to protect yourself with a PL policy. Check out the examples of how public liability works, see our poll to learn how much PL cover our readers typically go for, and for quick takeaways see the gray boxes. To find out how much people typically pay for public liability insurance go to the average cost section and when you're ready to get quotes yourself, click here where you'll fill out a short form and can request a call back if you have questions.
- What is Public Liability Insurance?
- Common exclusions
- Where can I get Public Liability Insurance quotes?
If you only have a few minutes
What does public liability insurance cover mean?
Public liability insurance covers situations where a member of the public (e.g., customer, passer-by, etc.) claims your business has caused personal injury or property damage. It's frequently available with £1M, £2M, £5M and £10M of cover.
How much does public liability insurance cost?
According to NimbleFins research, the average cost of public liability insurance for small businesses in the UK is around £120 per year. However, public liability insurance costs can vary widely from one business to the next depending on the risk profile, so to compare prices for your business fill out a quote form here.
Who needs public liability insurance?
Anyone operating in a business capacity with exposure to members of the public or their property should have public liability insurance, including:
- Sole traders
Is public liability insurance required?
- Public liability insurance is not a legal requirement, but it might be required by your clients and partners—even when not 'required' it is considered to be critical when work involves exposure to members of the public.
What is Public Liability Insurance?
Public liability (PL) insurance protects businesses against claims made by third parties if personal injury or property occurs on the business premises or while working off-site. PL insurance is the most common type of business insurance for a reason. Most businesses face some exposure to third party liability risk and public liability insurance can protect a business financially from the litigation costs and compensation payments that can follow certain types of accidents. If your business unintentionally causes bodily injury or property damage to a third party, public liability can cover:
- Legal costs
- Compensation payments
- Medical bills
- Repair costs
If a client, customer, vendor or member of the public is accidentally injured or their property damaged by your business (this includes damage resulting from actions by you or an employee, as well as from your product if product liability is a component of your cover), then Public Liability insurance can help protect your business if it is brought to court. The number of public liability claims in the UK topped 70,000 in 2019/20, making PL insurance a critical risk management tool for tens of thousands of businesses each year.
- You own a small gift shop that sells locally-produced, handmade artisan products. To keep up with a weekend rush you decide to restock your shelves with some of your most popular items. A customer trips over a box you left in an aisle and falls. He injures his shoulder which prevents him from working and decides to sue your shop for damages. Your Public Liability policy will cover any legal costs and settlement claims up to your coverage limits.
Do I Need Public Liability insurance?
Public Liability insurance is not required by law, but it is still critical for a lot of businesses. Ask yourself this question: Does my business (including you or your employees) have any in-person exposure to third parties like customers, clients, vendors, suppliers, cleaners, landlords or other members of the public—or their property? If so, you need public liability insurance.
Public liability cover is important for any business that interacts with members of the public or their property. Any contact with a third party can lead to a potential accident, exposing a business to the risk of financial loss. Businesses that have the greatest need for Public Liability insurance are those who have the most contact with the public, for instance pubs, cafes, restaurants, shops, salons and builders or tradesman—but any business with third party exposure should have public liability coverage.
Additionally, Public Liability insurance may be required by some trade organisations or customer contracts. For example:
- The Association of Plumbing & Heatings Contractors Limited (APHC) has minimum insurance requirements if you want to become a licensed member
- A commercial property development project might require electricians working on the project to have a minimum amount of Public Liability cover—e.g., Barratt Homes requires subcontractors to supply proof of insurance with a minimum of £5,000,000 of public liability (in addition to Employers' Liability and Professional Indemnity, as needed)
- A wedding caterer will be required to have Public Liability cover in place to work in a self-catering venue
But don't just take our word for it. The Association of British Insurers (ABI) has published a short guide to public liability insurance that you can also review.
What Does Public Liability Insurance Cover?
Public liability insurance covers compensation payments and associated legal costs for three types of accidental damage that could be caused by your business:
- Bodily injury
- Property damage
- Wrongful arrest
If your business is sued over any of these third-party damages, your Public Liability insurance underwriter will cover legal defense costs as well as compensation payments.
Public liability is third-party insurance that covers damage to members of the public (e.g., your customers or passersby), it does not cover damage to you, your employees or your business.
Public Liability insurance will pay for damages if your business (including you or one of your employees) causes property damage to someone else's property.
- You have a plumbing business that installs the sink in a domestic kitchen renovation. Unfortunately, a fault in a seal means the kitchen floods and damages the wooden floors and surrounding cabinets.
- You run a small cleaning business. While an employee is cleaning someone's home, a valuable vase is accidentally knocked over and broken.
However, Public Liability insurance does not cover damage to your business's property—it is a third-party cover so just covers property not associated with your business. (Damage to your business would be covered by commercial contents or buildings insurance).
- You own a takeaway restaurant, and a fire starts in the deep fryer. The fire spreads to a neighboring salon, damaging their storeroom. Your Public Liability Insurance would cover damage to the salon's property (e.g., the building and contents), but would not cover damage to your business.
Public Liability insurance covers your business if a third party (e.g., a customer or vendor, but not an employee) suffers a bodily injury resulting from your business operations or whilst on your business premises. Your underwriter will cover costs to investigate and defend a claim (e.g., solicitor fees, court costs, etc.) as well as any compensation payments and medical fees.
- You own a dog walking company. One of the dogs in your care jumps on an elderly person in the park, knocking them down and causing them to break a hip.
- You run a bouncy castle business. One of the anchors holding a bouncy castle to the ground fails and the inflatable tips, injuring some of the children inside.
It's important to understand that bodily injury on a Public Liability insurance policy does not cover you or your staff. If you or an employee are injured at work, a combination of Employers' Liability and Personal Accident/Personal Injury insurance can offer protection.
Product Liability insurance covers legal fees and compensation payments that you're legally liable to pay if a product your business has supplied (e.g., manufactured, distributed or sold) results in injury or damage to a third party. This coverage applies to incidents that occur away from your business premises; and in fact claims can be brought up to 3 years after a product is used.
Product Liability insurance is often sold as a part of a Public Liability policy, but it may be offered as a separate, extra coverage that a business buys on top of their Public Liability insurance. It is rarely sold on its own without Public Liability.
- You are a market trader who makes and sells homemade curry sauces at fairs. After selling your famous Jalfrezi at a fair one day, people fall ill and blame you for food poisoning.
- You manufacture handmade shoes. The heel on a pair of your high heels snaps off, causing a woman to fall and injure herself.
In addition to bodily injury and property damage coverages, Public Liability insurance also typically covers awards of damages for several non-physical injuries. These coverages will be specifically defined in your Public Liability insurance policy wording. Non-physical types of claims cover the unintentional results of intentional actions (vs. the bodily injury and property damage clauses of a Public Liability policy that cover negligence accidents, or unintentional actions).
- Wrongful arrest: A clothing shop accuses a customer of shoplifting and calls the police, who subsequently arrest the customer. After reviewing the CCTV footage, it becomes clear that the customer did not shoplift, and was wrongfully arrested. The customer sues the shop.
- Wrongful eviction: A tenant is forced to leave their home by a landlord who has not followed proper legal procedures, such as getting a court order and using bailiffs to execute the eviction. The tenant sues the landlord for illegal eviction.
If your company is sued for damages that are covered by your Public Liability insurance, the policy will cover the costs of your legal defense, including solicitors fees (e.g., to investigate or defend a claim against your company), court costs, etc.
Public liability cover for legal fees and expenses may be subject to a separate limit that is in addition to the injury and damages limit. For example, a Public Liability policy might have a £5 million limit for compensation amounts owed and a separate £100,000 limit for legal expenses incurred defending a claim.
- You hold a Public Liability Insurance policy with £2 million of liability cover, plus £100,000 of legal defense cover. Your business is sued for bodily injury and found liable for a judgment of £500,000. Your legal defense team incurred £75,000 of expenses while defending your business. Your Public Liability Insurance underwriter would pay for the £575,000 in compensation and legal costs.
Public Liability insurance also covers your business financially if the NHS claims for expenses they incur such as hospital treatment and/or an ambulance call out.
What is Not Covered by Public Liability Insurance?
There are many common exclusions to Public Liability insurance you should be aware of. Each insurance provider will have their own set of terms, but here are a few common exclusions that you'll find on most public liability policies:
Public liability insurance will not cover:
- Your business property and contents. Public Liability insurance only covers damage to the property of third parties. To cover your business premises and contents, you need commercial property insurance (building and/or contents, as appropriate).
- Design and advice. If you are paid for your advice, instructions or designs, these are not covered by Public Liability insurance; instead you need Professional Liability insurance.
- Employee injuries. Public Liability insurance only covers bodily injuries to third parties. To cover employees who are seriously injured or even killed by a workplace accident, you should buy Personal Accident insurance. Also, employers' liability is required by law if you have anyone working for you.
- Road traffic accidents. Your commercial auto insurance will cover motor vehicle claims related to your business.
- Damage caused intentionally. Any injury or damage that was caused intentionally is excluded.
- Crimes: Fines, penalties or compensation payments levied by a criminal court are not covered.
- Recalls and defects: Public Liability insurance won't cover the cost to remedy defects in a product, for instance via a product recall.
How Much does Public Liability Insurance Cost?
The average cost of public liability insurance for small businesses in the UK is £118 a year or £14.30 a month.
However, as Public Liability is priced based on the specific risks of your business, rates for your business may be lower or significantly higher than this average. For example, liability insurance for a limited company can be more than self-employed public liability insurance. (Learn more about this in our in-depth analysis of public liability insurance costs in the UK.)
When quoting a Public Liability insurance product, an underwriter will take into account many factors, including:
- Level of cover
- Size of your business
- Line of work
- Number of employees
- Business structure (e.g., sole trader, partnership or limited liability company)
- Number of directors or partners
- Claims history
- Additional coverages
Businesses that face higher risks will pay higher premiums than businesses viewed as lower risk, all else equal. For example, a builder will likely pay higher premiums than a photographer. Insurance underwriters perform their own internal risk calculations and so you may receive very different quotes from different insurance companies, even if the cover is equivalent between companies.
In fact, quotes could have more to do with an insurer's internal risk management than with your business specifically. For example, if an insurer decides they have written too many Public Liability insurance policies for contractors lately, their risk appetite for writing new contractor liability policies may be quite low. As a result that company's quotes for new contractor liability policies could be much higher than the rest of the market.
Considering all of this, it is always worth comparing how different insurers will price Public Liability cover for your business—whether you are renewing or buying your first policy for a new small business.
How Much Public Liability Insurance do I Need?
Small businesses in the UK commonly take out £1 million to £5 million of public liability insurance. However, the level of Public Liability insurance cover you need depends on your business structure and the line of work you do—in particular, how physically risky it it. For instance, a construction business will have a greater need for Public Liability cover than, say, a maths tutor. When deciding what amount of Public Liability cover is right for your business, consider the type of work you do and the size of possible compensation claims.
How Much Public Liability Insurance Should I Buy?
The amount of public liability insurance coverage you need is something you need to decide on your own—you won't find any insurance agents or brokers who will advise you regarding how much to buy. It may be useful to know that it's frequently sold with £1 million, £2 million and £5 million of cover, but you can buy more or less. Ultimately it depends on the risks your business faces, the size of your business, and other factors.
If you have an idea of how much you'll purchase, we'd love to know what you're thinking. Please let us and our other readers know in the poll below!
Where can I get Public Liability quotes?
Fill out a quote here to compare public liability insurance with our commercial insurance partner QuoteZone, who will connect you with up to 5 insurance providers. You’ll have a chance to build a policy to fit your needs specifically, and ask any questions you might have before signing up.
In addition you can compare prices before you buy by getting quotes for public liability insurance online with another search engine such as Simply Business, or find a BIBA broker using their search tool, or use a direct insurer like Direct Line, AXA or Hiscox.
Before you sign on the dotted line, be sure that an insurer is qualified to offer insurance by checking the Financial Services Register, which is maintained by the Financial Conduct Authority.
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The limit on an insurance policy is the maximum amount that an underwriter will pay in claims. Your Public Liability policy may have separate limits "for any one occurrence" and "during any one period of insurance". A "per occurrence" limit is the maximum that an insurer will pay for a single claim, while the per period of insurance limit is the maximum they will pay for the policy year, regardless of the number of claims. Although other amount may be available, the most common limits in the UK Public Liability insurance market are:
- £1 million
- £2 million
- £5 million
- £10 million
Yes and no—it depends on the type of claim. Bodily injury claims typically have no excess. However property damage claims frequently have an excess which can range from £100 up to £750 or more. Some categories of claims might have separate excesses, for instance damage due to water damage.
There is no "general" liability insurance product in the UK. To provide a wide range of liability coverage, you can buy Public Liability, Product Liability (which is sometimes included in Public Liability policies) and/or Employers' Liability insurance.
Yes—while public liability cover protects against injury or damage claims from third parties like customers or visitors, employers' liability covers injury or illness claims from a business's employees. They are both key components of business cover; learn more about how these coverages complement each other in our article about combined public and employers' liability insurance policies. Read about the differences between coverage and claims in our article Employers' Liability vs Public Liability Insurance Claims Explained.
Yes, sole traders who mix with members of the public in a business capacity need sole trader public liability insurance—it's especially important as sole traders don't have the protection of a company.
Yes, self-employed people who mix with members of the public in a business capacity need self employed public liability insurance—it's especially important as anyone who is self employed doesn't have the protection of a company.
You might need public liability insurance if you in a business capacity/your business have physical exposure to members of the public, which includes customers and clients.
Yes, an individual can get public liability insurance. In fact, public liability insurance is deemed critical for individuals working in a sole trader capacity as they don't have the protection of a company.
Public liability insurance is calculated based on a business's industry and line of work, their turnover, previous claims history, the limit of insurance, the excess, and many other factors.
Public liability insurance is not a legal requirement like employers' liability, however it may be required for certain business contracts and is generally advisable in cases where business and members of the public mix.
Yes, you can usually pay public liability insurance monthly—but when you consider the relatively low cost of a policy and that monthly payments often incur finance charges, it might make more financial sense to pay upfront.
Yes, you can cancel public liability insurance. However, it is likely that you will have to pay a cancellation charge which can be in the range of £50. If you've paid upfront, you may or may not be entitled to a partial refund.
To compare public liability insurance deals, start by looking at the premiums, limits of insurance (e.g., £2M, £5M, etc.) and the excess. You may also want to check customer ratings of the provider online.
Public Liability insurance can help protect you and your business financially if a member of the public sues you after accidental injury or property damage due to your negligence. It is widely purchased by a wide spectrum of businesses from tradesmen to cleaners to shops. As compensation claims can run into the thousands or millions of pounds, most business owners look to include Public Liability as a critical component of their business insurance package.
Public Liability Insurance Requirements by Occupation
To learn more about the specific insurance needs for your industry or profession, click on the relevant research below. We are currently building our library of profession-specific business insurance pages. If we haven't yet written about your profession, please let us know in the comments section below and we'll get on it!
The panel of public liability insurance providers you can access through us is powered by QuoteZone and includes a wide range of businesses from big names such as Towergate to smaller brokers. Click here to start the quote process, and the comparison engine will select up to five insurance providers from the panel to share your quote details with; they may call you to discuss your quote at which point you can ask any questions you have that we have not answered here.
- Be Wiser
- Brady Insurance
- Broadsure Insurance
- Business Choice Direct
- Compare Insurance
- Coversure Insurance
- GSI Insurance
- Inspire Insurance
- Insync Insurance
- Nova Insurance
- Plan Insurance
- Pol-Plan Insurance
- Professional Liability Brokers
- Rainbow Connected
- Rhino Trade Insurance
- SJL Insurance
- Towergate Insurance
- Yellow Jersey Cycle Insurance