The best and worst car brands for careful driving have been revealed in new analysis of telematics data.
Redtail Telematics studied results of more than 10,000 vehicles its devices were used in, which give each driver a score for motor insurance.
The score is based on driving behaviours linked to accidents such as fast or bad cornering, tailgating, harsh braking and acceleration, and excessive speed.
Car insurance providers sometimes offer cheaper insurance deals if a customer has used telematics to prove their driving safety.
And Redtail says analysis of past accidents suggests drivers with the poorest scores are more than 10 times more likely to be involved in an accident than those with the best scores.
For its research, Redtail divided driving risks into risks that drivers can control and risks they can't.
Based on seven controllable behaviours, Audi vehicles are one of the worst driven, while Toyota is regarded as one of the safest.
In one example, Audi and BMW were the most likely to have incidents of harsh acceleration per mile driven, according to the data. Harsh acceleration causes greater wear and tear on a vehicle and can lead to aggression-related driving incidents and more braking - which in turn uses more fuel.
Toyotas have 66% fewer harsh acceleration incidents, while Dacias have 75% fewer.
Dr Colin Smithers, CEO of Redtail Telematics, said of telematics: "Installed in about 1m cars by insurance companies, they offer drivers less costly insurance if they drive more carefully. But the telematics black boxes also reveal a wealth of data about how Britain drives - debunking a lot of modern myths but confirming many others as our research reveals.
“On a positive note, the insight provided by Redtail Telematics driver scoring can prompt improvements in driving behaviours which can have a positive impact not only on reducing the risk of accident but also on fuel consumption and consequent emissions."
In addition to accelerating, harsh braking can cause a loss of control, wear out brakes and tyres, and waste fuel.
Audi drivers were worst for hard braking, doing so every 2.5 miles. Drivers in Land Rovers braked harshly every six miles.
Audi drivers were also the worst for turning corners too quickly, doing so every 45 miles. Drivers in Toyotas were the best at anticipating corners, only cornering badly every 300 miles.
Audis and BMWs drove the fastest, with maximum speeds nearly 20 percent greater than Toyotas.
Best to worst car vehicles for safe drivers
- Toyota (safest)
- Land Rover
- Mercedes Benz
Dr Smithers also said there was a correlation between safe driving and eco driving. He added: "If we all changed our habits to find 15% better fuel consumption (e.g. by greater anticipation and so less unnecessary braking, and by limiting our cruising speeds), we would consequently reduce emissions by a similar proportion, which across the UK population is millions of tonnes of CO2 and at the same time reduce accidents by a similar proportion, with a consequent saving of lives and of lives ruined."